Departments BIOCHEMISTRY TRACE ELEMENTS CONTENT OF NEEM LEAVES

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TRACE ELEMENTS CONTENT OF NEEM LEAVES
TRACE ELEMENTS CONTENT OF NEEM LEAVES

ABSTRACT

The global scenario is now supporting the development of modern drugs from less toxic plant products with proven medicinal properties. Each part of the neem plant Azadirachta indica A. Juss reportedly has various medicinal properties and has been in use in many continents for centuries. In this project work, water extract from Neem leaves Azadirachta indica A Juss with the modern atomic absorption spectrophotometer was presented. The mineral and chemical properties in the water extract of Neem leaf were studied. Results showed that the neem leaf contains some essential minerals needed by the biochemical system. It is obvious that the water extract of Azadirachta indica is significantly high in sodium ion Na and potassium ion K concentrations which are responsible in the conduction of impulses along the axons of the central nervous system. Iron is another element determined. This element is significantly low in the water extract of the sample used neem leaf.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page . i

Certification .ii

Dedication ..iii

Acknowledgement ..iv

Abstract v

Table of contents vi

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction 1

1.1 Aim of project.2

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature review3

2.1 History of Neem tree .3

2.2 Scientific classification ..4

2.3 Description of the Neem tree .....5

2.4 Neem oil .6

2.5 Neem gum ..8

2.6 Neem honey ...8

2.7 Chemical compounds in Neem ..8

2.8 Medicinal properties of Neem .10

2.9 Modern researches on the effect of Neem ...11

2.9.1 Neems effect against microorganisms 12

2.9.2 Neems effect against ailments .........................14

2.9.3 Toxicity of Neem ..15

2.9.4 Neem as a vegetable .16

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Materials and methods..17

3.1 Raw material used 17

3.2 Equipment used17

3.3 Sample preparation and extraction ..18

3.4 Atomic absorption spectrophotometer determination .18

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1 Results 19

CHAPTER FIVE

Discussion and conclusion 23

REFERENCES.24

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Neem Azadirachta indica A. Juss is one of the very few trees known in the Indian subcontinent Puri, 1999. This tree belonged to Meliceae family, and grows rapidly in the tropic and semitropic climate. It is also observed that this tree could survive in very dry and arid conditions.Puri, 1999. The Neem Tree is an incredible plant that has been declared the Tree of the 21st century by the United Nations Puri, 1999.In India, it is variously known as Divine Tree, Life giving tree, Natures Drugstore, Village Pharmacy and Panacea for all diseases. It is one of the major components in Ayurvedic medicine, which has been practiced in India since many centuries.

Extracts from the Neem tree Azadirachta indica A Juss also called Dogonyaro in Nigeria are most consistently recommended in ancient medical texts for gastrointestinal upsets, diarrhoea and intestinal infections, skin ulcers and malaria Schmutterer, 1995. All parts of Neem plant such as leaves, bark, flower, fruit, seed and root have advantages in medical treatment and industrial products. Its leaves can be used as drug for diabetes, eczema and reduce fever. Barks of Neem can be used to make toothbrush and the roots has an ability to heal diseases and against insects. Puri, 1999. The seed of Neem tree has a high concentration of oil. Neem oil is widely used as insecticides, lubricant, drugs for variety of diseases such as diabetes and tuberculosis Puri, 1999; Ragasa et al., 1996.


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